3GPP defines three bands of 5G frequencies for different use-cases:1
1. Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB) is the low frequency band (below 1 GHz), where signals can travel long distances and to some extent even underground and through walls (like the bass notes that you hear when someone in a different room plays loud music), but with a compromise on speed. Speed is however, likely to be equivalent to or better than the highest speeds available on 4G and this band is likely to be rolled out first, to give the consumer an upgraded experience on their mobile phone.
2. At the other end of the spectrum, Massive Machine-Type Communications (mMTC) operates in the high-frequency band (above 20 GHz), where the signal cadence is short and fast, allowing for very high speeds, but a far more limited shorter range. This is most suitable for connecting a very large number of devices in a limited area, with millisecond speed and latency. This will be best suited to real-time applications in towns, factories, logistics warehouses, offices, schools, and hospitals.
3. Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communication (uRLLC) is the middle frequency band, between eMBB and mMTC, offering a “Goldilocks” balance of not too hot and not too cold: good speed and good range, and in addition, the best reliability of all three bands. It is this reliability aspect, combined with low latency and high speed, which makes it most suitable for autonomous vehicles and other transport systems.