1 Source: Worldbank (2018): What a waste 2.0: A Global Snapshot of Solid Waste Management to 2050, URL: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/30317, 21.10.2020.
2 Source: Hoornweg et al. (2013): Environment: Waste production must peak this century, Nature International Journal of Science, Oct. 2013, URL: https://www.nature.com/news/environment-waste-production-must-peak-this-century -1.14032 , 21.10.2020.
3 Source: EPA (2020): Facts and Figures about Materials, Waste and Recycling, URL: https://www.epa.gov/facts-and-figures-about-materials-waste-and-recycling/national-overview-facts-and-figures-materials, 21.10.2020.
4 Source: Global Market Insights (2020): US Municipal Solid Waste Management Market, URL: https://www.globenewswire.com/news-release/2020/04/29/2024150/0/en/Municipal-Solid-Waste-Management-Market-growth-in-the-U-S-predicted-at-2-2-till-2026-Global-Market-Insights-Inc.html, 06.11.2020.
5 Source: FDA (2020): Food loss and waste, URL: https://www.fda.gov/food/consumers/food-loss-and-waste, 21.10.2020.
6 Source: EPA (2020): Facts and Figures about Materials, Waste and Recycling, URL: https://www.epa.gov/facts-and-figures-about-materials-waste-and-recycling/national-overview-facts-and-figures-materials, 21.10.2020.
7 Source: Liu et al. (2015): A review of municipal solid waste environmental standards with a focus on incinerator residues, in: International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, December 2015, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212609015000394#b0400, 24.10.2020.
8 Source: Wastedive (2020): Disposal capacity crunch paves way for more industry consolidation and price increases, Jan. 8th 2020, URL: https://www.wastedive.com/news/report-us-landfill-disposal-capacity-decline-consolidation/569953/ , 25.10.2020.
9 Source: Tishman Environment and Design Center (2019): U.S. Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators: An Industry in Decline, May 2019, URL: https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5d14dab43967cc000179f3d2/t/5d5c4bea0d59ad00012d220e/1566329840732/CR_GaiaReportFinal_05.21.pdf.
10 Source: Envirotec (2018): Incineration not the reason for recycling stagnation, comment, Sept. 26th 2018, URL: https://envirotecmagazine.com/2018/09/26/comment-incineration-not-the-reason-for-recycling-stagnation/ , 25.10.2020.
11 Examples of best practice in recycling are:
- Buy products that can be recycled.
- Separate waste that can be recycled from other waste.
- Check the cost of recycling: It could be much less than sending your waste for energy recovery or disposal.
- Sell high-quality recyclable materials, such as construction materials.
Source: nibusinessinfo.co.uk (2020): How to recycle your business waste, URL: https://www.nibusinessinfo.co.uk/content/recycling-best-practice-and-obligations , 30.10.2020.
12 The cost of recycling waste might also be a reason for the slow uptake in recycling. Recycled products have to compete with goods created from raw materials, which have been very volatile and can even be cheaper. As a result, high recycling costs coupled with competitive raw material prices mean that the recycling industry often struggles to stay competitive in a highly uncertain market.
13 Source: UNEP (2015): Global Waste Management Outlook, 2015, URL: https://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/9672/-Global_Waste_Management_Outlook-2015Global_Waste_Management_Outlook.pdf.pdf?sequence=3&%3BisAllowed= , 26.10.2020.
14 Circular economy could be part of the solution: The aim of this approach is to 1) minimize the use of raw materials and to preserve the natural resources, 2) to maximize the yield from resources by reusing the materials as much as possible and 3) minimize negative externalities sich as air and water pollution. This approach involves the transformation of every aspect in the lifecycle of a good, starting from design, manufacturing, retail, consumption, reuse and recycling (source: Ellen MacArthur Foundation (2020): The Circular Economy In Detail, URL: https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/explore/the-circular-economy-in-detail, 29.10.2020.
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